Organization

Planned Research

Committees

Advisory Committee

  • Ryusuke Kakigi, Professor, Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences
  • Junichi Murata, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Letters, Rissho University (The University of Tokyo, Professor Emeritus)
  • Hisao Tomizawa, Professor, School of International Relations, University of Shizuoka
  • Hiroshi Harashima, The University of Tokyo, Professor Emeritus
  • Seiichi Kitayama, Rikkyo University, Professor Emeritus

Steering Committee

  • Masami Yamaguchi (Chuo University)
  • Akihiro Tanaka (Tokyo Woman's Christian University)
  • Kohske Takahashi (Chukyo University)
  • Katsumi Watanabe (Waseda University)
  • Ikuya Tokoro (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
  • Tetsuya Kono (Rikkyo University)

International Cooperation Committee

  • Masami Yamaguchi (Chuo University)
  • Katsumi Watanabe (Waseda University)
  • Akihiro Tanaka (Tokyo Woman's Christian University)
  • Kohske Takahashi (Chukyo University)
  • Ikuya Tokoro (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
  • Tetsuya Kono (Rikkyo University)
  • Shinobu Kitayama (University of Michigan)
  • Roberto Caldara (University of Fribourg)

A01-P01: Cultural Anthropological Fieldwork on Facial and Bodily Expressions

Members

Principal Investigator

Ikuya Tokoro, Professor, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies

Collaborators

  • Ryouko Nishii, Professor, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Yukako Yoshida, Assistant professor, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Momo Shioya, Associate professor, The University of Shimane
  • Miwako Tanaka, Associate professor, Higashi Nippon International University
  • Yutaka Yoshida, Research Associates, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies

Outline and Purpose

We have recently come to encounter the remarkable flow or conflation of cultures and information, which cross regional or national boundaries, with the development of electronic media such as the Internet. Given this situation, we have come to the experience concerning facial and bodily expressions in a new way. For instance, uncountable images of the face (or body), in the highest degree, have appeared through electronic media, among other ways. As a result, we have come to be pressed with the global standardization of the choice, interpretation, and sense of beauty concerning the face (or body). On the other hand, people seem to be increasingly eagerly involved in local or culturally specific interpretations or practices about the face and body, such as covering the face with a veil in Islamic regions or the survival of entertainment using masks in Bali, Indonesia. Based on such an understanding, we aim to compare the differences (and consistency) concerning facial and bodily expression and practice in several cultural areas in Asia including Islamic and Hindu ones, with the methods of cultural anthropology including field work.

Method and Object

We plan to conduct research in local contexts concerning facial and bodily expression with the methods of field sciences including anthropological field work. We will conduct comparative study on the face and its related bodily expression, considering several cultural and social contexts in (East and Southeast) Asia including the Muslim areas. We will examine not only the expression of faces in the narrow sense but also a variety of bodily expression including face, cloth, ornament, mask, veil and scarf, and so on. In addition, we will also consider representations and expressions on Internet media such as Facebook. Considering these phenomena, we aim to clarify the differences and consistency among various areas and cultures.

A01-P02: Multicultural Experimental Study on Facial and Bodily Expressions

Members

Principal Investigator

Kohske Takahashi, Associate Professor, Chukyo University

Collaborators

  • Masaki Shimada, Associate Professor, Teikyo University of Science
  • Takanori Oishi, Lecturer, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Kun Qian, Assistant Professor, Kyushu University
  • Keishi Okamoto, Project Researcher, Chukyo University
  • Hidekazu Yarimizu, Project Researcher, Chukyo University

Cultural psychology has developed theories through comparison of the East (East Asia) and the West (North America and Europe). Compared to the worldwide diversity, there are many similarities in the cultural environments of the East and the West, and, hence, there is a limitation that it handles only part of cultural diversity. Furthermore, the development of transportation and information technology rapidly increase human communication beyond regional and cultural boundaries. To understand cultural diversity on a global scale and facilitate fluent communication under the modern transcultural conditions, it is essential to progress multicultural studies beyond comparison of East and West

This team, on top of collaboration between experimental psychologists and fieldworkers, will build a psychological experiment system applicable in the various fields outside the laboratory setting. Then, we will conduct field experiments all over the world—East/Southeast Asia, East and West Africa, South America, Western Europe, North America, and so on—on research questions ranging from recognition to expression of face and body, e.g., how people read emotion from the face and body or how people express their emotion. Based on the field experiment above, we will accumulate the quantitative verification and anthropological interpretation and will reveal the cultural dependency and cultural universality of the roles, functions, and usage of facial and bodily expression.

B01-P01: The Developmental Process for Cultural Differences in Face and Body Recognition.

Members

Principal Investigator

Masami K. Yamaguchi, Professor, Chuo University

Collaborators

  • Shinobu Kitayama, Professor, University of Michigan
  • So Kanazawa, Professor, Japan Women’s University
  • Satoshi Eifuku, Professor, Fukushima Medical University
  • Yuta Ujiie, Research Associate, Chuo University
  • Megumi Kobayashi, Researcher, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center
  • Wakayo Yamashita, Research Associate, Kagoshima University
  • Olivier Pascalis, Professor, Université Grenoble Alpes
  • Alice J. O’Toole, Professor, The University of Texas at Dallas
  • Michael Webster, Professor, University of Nevada, Reno

Outline

Understanding facial and bodily expressions in transcultural situations leads to the acceptance of different races, different cultures, and heterogeneity. From the developmental perspective, we will promote understanding of the “implicit” and “explicit” processes for cultural differences in face and body recognition. In addition, we will clarify the interaction of implicitly and explicitly learning processes for faces as well as individual differences between typical and atypical developments, including infants.

Method and Object

This team aims to investigate the developmental process for cultural differences in collaboration with researchers from Switzerland, France, and Canada. We also collaborate with brain sciences. We plan to examine the learning mechanisms of explicit and implicit processes of the face with eye movement measurement and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). While the infant’s explicit processing in face learning will be examined through the preference response, implicit reaction is to be examined through measurement of eye movement and skin conductance response. These measurements will be conducted to clarify the mechanisms of the implicit and explicit processing concerning the face learning. In addition, fNIRS is to be conducted to measure the brain activities of the typical and atypical infants in clinical settings.

B01-P02: The Implicit and Explicit Processes in Facial and Bodily Expressions

Members

Principal Investigator

Katsumi Watanabe, Professor, Waseda University

Collaborators

  • Yumiko Otsuka, Associate Professor, Ehime University
  • Daisuke Matsuyoshi, Assistant Professor, Waseda University
  • Miho Kitamura, Associate Professor, Waseda University
  • Aiko Murata, Postdoctoral Fellow, Waseda University
  • Kanji Tanaka, Postdoctoral Fellow, Waseda University
  • Kyoshiro Sasaki, Postdoctoral Fellow, Waseda University
  • Koyo Nakamura, Postdoctoral Fellow, Waseda University
  • Roberto Caldara, Professor, University of Fribourg
  • Colin Clifford, Professor, University of New South Wales

Outline and Purpose

In modern society, people of different kinds gather together, and different cultures interact in this transcultural setting. Given this situation, it is especially important to clarify the difference and commonality of facial and bodily expressions for cross-cultural understanding and communication. It has been demonstrated that humans change their behaviors when they notice minor differences among them, even if they are not aware of it, through examination of the evaluation of emotion or decision-making. However, there remains a need to examine the implicit processing of which we are unaware. This team focuses on cultural and individual differences in facial and bodily expressions. We aim to empirically investigate prediction, memory, and preference concerning the cognitive strategy and dynamics of facial cognition in terms of the explicit and implicit processes.

Method and Object

This research tries to clarify the cultural and individual differences concerning facial and bodily expressions in terms of “explicit processing” and “implicit processing” based on the methods of psychology, cognitive science, and brain science. It aims to contribute to the project of studying face and body, considering the process from expectation and perception to memory with collaboration from foreign researchers. Our primary methods will be behavioral experiments and the measurement of eye movement while we also plan to employ skin conductance response and electroencephalogram. In addition, we aim to establish a theory about each culture and society from facial and bodily expressions based on these dynamics and the data concerning time-dependency, considering that facial and bodily expressions reflect their social and cultural backgrounds.

B01-P03: Cross-cultural Comparisons of the Sensory Integration Concerning Facial and Bodily Expressions

Members

Principal Investigator

Akihiro Tanaka, Professor, Tokyo Woman's Christian University

Collaborators

  • Sachiko Takagi, Associate Professor, Tokiwa University
  • Hisako W. Yamamoto, Project Researcher, Tokyo Woman's Christian University

Outline and Purpose

Modern society is characterized by its transcultural character. Given this situation, we need to know the universality and cultural-specificity of facial and bodily expressions that transmit our emotions as well as the perception of others’ expressions of emotion. This helps us to communicate with others whose cultural backgrounds are different from ours. Sensory integration plays an essential role in the perception of emotion. The perception of emotion involves not only the face or body (visual information) but also the voice (auditory information). This team focuses on “the integration of information” including sensory integration, which we think is a fundamental factor determining the cultural variability in the cognitive manner of the face, body, and voice. Then, we aim to examine how the manner of integration in the perception of emotion develops from infancy to adulthood and to propose the theoretical framework that explains the findings from an integrated perspective.

Method and Object

In this project, we focus on emotion perception from the face and voice. We aim to investigate the explicit process with an index of behaviors such as the judgement or assessment of emotion as well as the implicit process with an eye-tracker and physiological measures. Specifically, we aim to examine the following three topics. (1) We examine developmental changes in emotion perception and how cultural differences emerge. We focus on the relation between emotion perception and other cognitive processes. (2) We examine what kinds of emotion are invoked and lead to social behaviors when people perceive the emotion of others through cross-cultural comparison. (3) We also clarify whether a critical period of cultural acquisition exists. These are examined through behavioral and fMRI experiments with migrants to Japan.

C01-P01: A Comparative Phenomenology of Facial and Bodily Expressions

Members

Principal Investigator

Tetsuya Kono, Rikkyo University, College of arts

Collaborators

  • Shojiro Kotegawa, Kokugakuin University, Faculty of letters

The Outline and Purpose of the Research

The face and body are natural existences determined by the biological and physiological conditions of each individual as well as social existences conditioned by cultural and social institutions through learning and experience. In this sense, the face and body are the place where there are competitions between the active and the passive, the individual and society, and nature and society. This team aims to analyze how bodily expressions involve sociocultural institutions; how these expressions lead intersubjective relations between individuals; and how the bodily subject consciously interprets, appropriates, or denies the sociocultural institutions incorporated into its body of the self from the phenomenological view originated by Husserl. Based on the analysis, we try to construct the theoretical foundation of the whole of this research project and to construct a general theory of facial and bodily expressions as well as to establish a “comparative phenomenology” that focuses on the mutation and transformation of corporeality in a variety of sociocultural institutions.

Method and Object

This research is based on the viewpoint of phenomenological positivism that integrates phenomenology and empirical studies. Phenomenology is the philosophical methodology that directly describes the experience of each individual and analyzes the structure of the meaning constitution. This team aims to describe how the visibility and flexibility of facial and bodily expressions and the sense of ownership are coded and how each individual deals with this coding in each culture or society and in each social setting and human relation. In addition, we will establish the comparative phenomenology of facial and bodily expressions through comparing the phenomenological descriptions and relativizing facial and bodily expressions in each culture or society. Especially, we propose the following three themes or objects for our research:
(1) The establishment of an international research group for “the comparative phenomenology of facial and bodily expressions”
(2) The phenomenology of metamorphosis
(3) The phenomenology of the visibility, flexibility, and sense of ownership/non-ownership of the body